All rights reserved. If a pregnant woman in the absence of contraindications had an MRI, then she would not do any harm to the health of her baby. MRI is particularly useful for the imaging of soft tissues. The American College of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommends that pregnant patients should be reviewed on a case-to-case basis, and the risk-benefit ratio needs to be made by the physicians involved. Metal hip replacements, sutures or foreign bodies in other sites are relative contraindications to the MRI. Teratology 1991;43: 263-275. Clin Radiol. Only in some cases, when examining certain areas, the doctor will recommend carrying out the preparatory stage before the procedure. Let’s find out, true if this assertion and is there a threat to pregnant MRI. With the advent of MRI has a unique opportunity to see any, even minor deviations in fetal development. Br J Radiol 1995; 68: 1090-1094. In addition, until the placenta is formed, the fetus still does not have sufficient protection. A possible criticism of many of these studies is that they are not applicable to humans. No teratogenic effect or acoustic damage has been documented after foetal MRI scanning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method that has evolved continuously during the past 20 years, yielding MR systems with stronger static magnetic fields, faster and stronger gradient ... several new indications have been established during the last few years—for example, cardiovascular MRI. US may be sufficient for the initial imaging evaluation of a pregnant patient who has sustained trauma, but CT should be performed if serious injury is suspected. For such reasons, if pelvimetry is considered appropriate, it is reasonable to perform pelvimetry by CT rather than MRI. It also poses very little health risk because it does not depend on radiation, as does X-ray or computed tomography (CT) imaging. Implantable Pediatric Sternum Device A new implanted sternal device system for pediatric patients is contraindicated for MRI. Incidence, clinical characteristics, and timing of objectively diagnosed venous thromboembolism during pregnancy. While teratogenic effects have not been observed in a small number of human studies where gadolinium has been given in pregnancy [2, 3], it is clear that gadolinium should not be administered in pregnancy unless there is an absolutely essential clinical indication, particularly during the period of organogenesis. On the received image there is a natural contrast from blood circulation. Russell JR, Stabin MG, Sparks RB, et al. Butler EL, Cox SM, Eberts EG, Cunningham FG. The doctor can prescribe an MRI of the sinuses during pregnancy only if there are strict indications: MRI of the nasal sinuses does not have a negative effect, even in the case of repeated use. Eur J Radiol 1994; 18 (Suppl 1): 21-31. The only published study on the use of CT for appendicitis in pregnancy showed 100% accuracy in a small series of 7 patients, 2 of whom were found to have appendicitis [4]. Effects. 2000;55: 446-53. The most common indications for urgent CT during pregnancy are: Appendicitis - For first and second trimester pregnancies US and/or MR should be performed prior to obtaining a CT. acute disturbance of cerebral circulation; bleeding in the nasal cavity, purulent sinusitis. Often, women who are worried about the normal course of pregnancy and the state of the unborn child, are wary of this method of diagnosis, like MRI. Pregnancy is not a contraindication to MRI, although discussion with the MRI facility is suggested. The excess risk (of 1 in 2000) is equivalent to driving 20,000 miles in a car or living in New York City for 3 years [12]. ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice. If you carefully study the mechanism of action of this type of diagnosis, you can be sure that the procedure does not have any devastating consequences for the body. MRI is a time-consuming exam that requires the patient to remain still for a long time during image acquisition. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women: Value of sonography. Castro MA, Shipp TD, Castro EE, et al. MRI in early pregnancy is not recommended. Webb JA, Thomsen HS, Morcos SK; Members of Contrast Media Safety Committee of European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR). MRI in pregnancy is used as an independent study, or as an addition to the diagnosis already done: The method of magnetic resonance imaging can detect problems with the spine, joints, central nervous system. National Radiological Protection Board. MRI can be indicated for use in pregnant women if other forms of diagnostic imaging are inadequate or require exposure to ionizing radiation such as X-ray or CT. As a safety precaution, MR scanning should be avoided in the first three months of pregnancy. This discussion can be undertaken by either the referring physician or the involved radiologist. Hall suggests termination may be considered for a radiation of over 10 rad received between a gestational age of 10 days and 26 weeks [2]. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1983; 26: 801-809. Relative agreement exists on when to recommend termination of pregnancy after radiation exposure. Effects of MR exposure at 1.5T on early embryonic development of the chick. Mole RH. Many may note that most patients are evaluated by ultrasound to evaluate the condition of the fetus. In practice, it is exceptionally unlikely that any single radiological study would deliver a radiation dose sufficient to justify termination. It is increasingly being used and requested as several new indications have been established … Wittich AC, DeSantis RA, Lockrow EG. Ventilation perfusion scintigraphy is indeterminate in up to 25% of patients imaged during pregnancy [7]. Radiology 2005; 234: 740-748. Ionizing radiation: levels and effects. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1989; 61: 189-196. Pelvimetry can be performed either by low dose CT or by MRI, and written informed consent is not required. The so-called "Danish rule" was offered in 1959 by Hammer-Jacobsen, who suggested termination was advisable for a fetal dose of over 10 rads [1]. Morisetti A, Tirone P, Luzzani F, de Haen C. Toxicologic safety assessment of iomeprol, a new x-ray contrast agent. Organogenesis occurs predominantly between 2 and 15 weeks gestation. The increasing use of imaging in the population will inevitably result in an increase in requests for imaging in women who are pregnant or lactating. Appendicitis in pregnancy. Although permitted to work in and around the MR environment, pregnant health care practitioners are requested not to remain within the MR scanner bore or scan room during actual data acquisition or scanning. Acta Radiol 1997; 38: 870-875. The aim was to simulate the acoustic environment of the gravid uterus. Effects of magnetic resonance imaging on eye development in the C57BL/6J mouse. The strong magnets used during the scan can affect any metal implants or fragments in your body. And here it is not at all that it is considered harmful. There are no known biological effects of MRI on fetuses. This is the period when the fetus is most susceptible to the teratogenic effects of ionizing radiation, which include microcephaly, microphthalmia, mental retardation, growth retardation, behavioral defects, and cataracts. Wagner LK, Archer BR, Zeck OF. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2007; 188: 1447-74. Kanal E, Barkovich AJ, Bell C, Borgstede JP, Bradley WG, Jr., Froelich JW, et al. Three large studies showed that the rate of pregnancy associated pulmonary embolism was approximately 1 to 2 per 7000 pregnancies (less than previously supposed), and that the majority occurred post-partum, particularly with pre-eclampsia, Caesarean section, and multiple births [1-3]. Radiology 1990; 176: 593-606. Principles for the Protection of Patients and Volunteers During Clinical Magnetic Resonance Diagnostic Procedures. Br J Radiol 1997; 70: 130-139. Contraindications to MRI. Paracetamol and alcohol: why joint use is dangerous? Kanal E, Shellock FG, Talagala L. Safety considerations in MR imaging. In pregnancy, MRI can be prescribed, if necessary, for examination of diseases of the woman and the fetus. Chilton: National Radiological Protection Board, 1993: 15-157. British Thoracic Society guidelines for the management of suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Mag Res Imag 1989; 7: 309-331. Hammer-Jacobsen E. Therapeutic abortion on account of x-ray examination during pregnancy. Health Phys 1997; 73: 756-769. MRI (deciphered as magnetic resonance imaging) is a diagnostic method that uses the properties of magnetic fields. The use of helical computed tomography in pregnancy for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Administration of gadolinium later in pregnancy may be reasonable, although such indication would likely be for a maternal or obstetric indication rather than for evaluation of a fetal abnormality. Pregnancy is not a contraindication to MRI, but it is a contraindication for use of gadolinium-based contrast material. This relative risk may appear substantial, but it should be remembered that the baseline risk is very low, so that the odds of dying of childhood cancer go from 1 in 2000 (baseline) to 2 in 2000 (after 5 rads). It is considered reasonable to perform MRI during pregnancy if the result is required for management during pregnancy and is not available from other tests. Schwartz JL, Crooks LE. The traditional and standard recommendation is that lactating women who receive intravascular iodinated contrast or gadolinium should discontinue breast-feeding for 24 hours, and the expressed milk during this period should be discarded [1]. The sound intensity in the stomach was measured during MRI scanning across a range of radiofrequencies. The risks of MRI scans increase with the used field strength. Copyright © 2011 - 2021 iLive. A pregnant woman must spend some time in a closed space in a stationary state. Anderson N. X-ray pelvimetry: helpful or harmful? Marked obesity. Radiology 1980; 136: 707-710. Therefore, it is better to be safe and prescribe an MRI for a later period of pregnancy. Pelvimetry by magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Radiol 1987; 60: 17-31. MRI of the spine in early terms is carried out only on strict indications: In principle, the MRI procedure is not dangerous, but it is generally accepted that in early terms it is carried out only in the presence of emergency indications. Just the period of the first trimester is the time of laying the main organs of the future baby. ACOG Committee Opinion. However, during all the years of practice, negative consequences were not observed after this procedure. 1980; 362: 87-92. Reassuringly, animal studies have failed to show an in vivo teratogenic effect [2, 3]. Renal colic - US is the initial study of choice. What you can learn with the help of MRI during pregnancy Am J Obstet Gynecol 1976; 126: 723-726. na G, Zaffaroni M, Defilippi C, et al. Contraindications to performing breast MRI Contraindications to breast MI include the following: Patient's inability to lie prone. This research procedure utilizes the following products, “Magnimplant” and “Magnatract” in a combined … J Fam Pract 1983; 17: 405-12. To … In general, implants are becoming increasingly MR safe and an individual evaluation is carried out for each case. Radiology 2003; 228: 319-29. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure for making images of the internal structures of the body. The results of these studies provide reassuring clinical and experimental evidence that there is no significant risk of acoustic injury to the fetus during prenatal MRI. Our institutional experience suggests all modalities (US, CT, and MRI) become problematic in later pregnancy (past 35 weeks gestation) and consultation with on-call faculty may be appropriate in such patients. Before the MRI of the internal organs of the abdominal cavity, it is advisable not to drink or take food about 5 hours before the procedure. If you feel that any of our content is inaccurate, out-of-date, or otherwise questionable, please select it and press Ctrl + Enter. Risk factors for pregnancy associated venous thromboembolism. ... heart valves and annuloplasty rings • Cardiac occluder devices • Vena cava filters and embolisation coils • pregnancy or breast feeding 10. Pregnancy is a contraindication for breast MRI because it is not known if the contrast agent used is safe during pregnancy. There is theoretical and clinical evidence that patients with implanted cardiac devices such as a pacemaker, cardioverters or left heart assist devices, can safely undergo VCE in spite of still existing contraindication by … Cobben LP, Groot I, Haans L, Blickman JG,Puylaert J. MRI for clinically suspected appendicitis during pregnancy. Contrast is introduced into the circulatory system and accumulates in the tissues - this makes the area under investigation more clear, and also allows assessing the quality of the blood filling of tissues. The intravascular use of non-ionic contrast media has been reported to have no effect on neonatal thyroid function [5]. 2004; 104: 647-651. Contrast is a gadolinium salt, which is soluble in water and has the lowest toxicity. Soft tissues have a strictly differentiated display. Beers GJ. The first trimester is the period when the fetus is actively formed, so medical specialists at this time try to avoid any procedures and interventions at all. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a proven, established imaging modality for evaluating fetal anomalies that are not adequately or completely assessed by sonography ... SAFETY GUIDELINES AND POSSIBLE CONTRAINDICATIONS . Although the presence and extent of harm to MRI for the child, even in this period is not proven. : Movement in the bore of the magnet may damage sensitive tissues. Yip YP, Capriotti C, Talagala SL, Yip JW. In pregnant women, VCE should be restricted to urgent cases where diagnosis cannot be postponed after delivery, as data on safety are missing. Mutzel W, Speck U. Pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of iohexol in the rat and the dog. Pulmonary embolism and stroke in relation to pregnancy: how can high-risk women be identified? Obstructive urinary calculi complicate approximately 1 in 3300 pregnancies [1]. Key point: Lactating women who receive iodinated contrast or gadolinium can continue breast feeding without interruption. There are no precautions or contraindications specific to the pregnant woman. It is especially undesirable to perform CT during pregnancy - this can cause considerable harm to the body and mother and child. Excretion of gadopentetate dimeglumine into human breast milk during lactation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. Possible mechanisms for apparent deleterious effects include the heating effect of MR gradient changes, and direct non-thermal interaction of the electromagnetic field with biological structures. Adverse effects of amniofetography on fetal thyroid function. Over the last 30 years, thousands of pregnant women have had MRI exams, and no known harmful effects to the baby have been found. After the termination of the action of the waves, the particles "die down", while generating a certain dose of energy recorded by a special hardware sensor. Conceptus dose from two state-of-the-art CT scanners. Such indications include: In addition, MRI in pregnancy can be used instead of traditional ultrasound, in cases where the latter is impossible. are clickable links to these studies. Usually brain MRI is prescribed when a patient complains of frequent pain and noises in the head, accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Mil Med 1999; 164: 671-674. Stark DD, McCarthy SM, Filly RA, Parer JT, Hricak H, Callen PW. Effects of iopamidol on neonatal thyroid function. NMR imaging produces no observable mutations or cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. Gadolinium crosses the placenta where it is presumably excreted by the fetal kidneys into the amniotic fluid. Key point: Acoustic damage from MRI during pregnancy appears to be a theoretical rather than a real concern. You can also contact us! Assign MRI of the fetus during pregnancy with a suspected gross developmental defects, which may prove to be an artificial abortion - abortion. In general, intravascular contrast media should be avoided in pregnancy, in order to avoid any possible hazard to the fetus. Damilakis J, Prassopoulos P, Perisinakis K, Faflia C, Gourtsoyiannis N. CT of the sacroiliac joints: Dosimetry and optimal settings for a high-resolution technique. Ros HS, Lichtenstein P, Bellocco R, et al. 2016;316(9):952-961) states, "Exposure to MRI during the first trimester of pregnancy compared with nonexposure was not associated with increased risk of harm to the fetus or in early childhood. Chan WS, Ray JG, Murray S, Coady GE, Coates, G, Ginsberg, JS. Article Author: Maryam Ghadimi Article Editor: Amit Sapra Updated: 5/24/2020 12:37:37 AM For CME on this topic: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contraindications CME PubMed Link: ... During pregnancy, MRI is a helpful imaging technique to evaluate obstetric and nonobstetric disorders during any trimester. If you are annoyed by extraneous noise, ask the medical staff for special "ear plugs" during the procedure, the device produces a small monotonous noise, which can increase the degree of discomfort. Vaginal birth after cesarean section: X-ray pelvimetry at term is informative. Accordingly, the guidelines of the National Radiological Protection Board in the United Kingdom is that "it might be prudent to exclude pregnant women during the first three months of pregnancy" [5]. Do not make exceptions and women during pregnancy, because they have to track not only their health status, but also the development of a future child. In vitro experiments have shown iodinated contrast to be mutagenic to human cells [1]. Other contraindications are those that apply to any MRI examination, such as presence of a pacemaker; a metallic foreign body in the eye, brain, or near other vital structures; a cochlear implant; or a drug infusion device, to name a few. The main mechanism of influence in MRI is the influence of the electromagnetic field. The only condition - MRI is undesirable to conduct in the first trimester. Key point: Teratogenesis is not a major concern after diagnostic CT studies of the pelvis in pregnancy, because the radiation dose is generally too low to cause such effects. The diagnosis of appendicitis in pregnancy can be clinically difficult, particularly in later pregnancy, as evidenced by a perforation rate of 31% for appendicitis occurring in the first and second trimester but rising to 69% in the third trimester [2]. Tyndall DA, Sulik KK. AJR 2004; 183: 671-675. There are no known side-effects of an MRI, providing the patient does not have a contraindicated implant in situ. Key point: Despite in vitro concerns, iodinated contrast seems safe to use in pregnancy. ... lactation breastfeeding is not a contraindication to MRI or MRI contrast agents; it is not necessary for women to stop breastfeeding before or after an MRI, … By Fergus Coakley, MD, Robert Gould, DSc, Christopher Hess, MD, PhD, Michael Hope, MD, Russell K Laros Jr., MD, and Mari-Paule Thiet, MD, © 2021 The Regents of the University of California, Excess risk of childhood cancer per rad of fetal whole body dose, (T32) Biomedical Imaging for Clinician Scientists, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jmri.24011, http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/risk.htm, Prepare for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Baseline risk of fatal childhood (0-15 yrs) cancer, Excess risk of fatal childhood cancer per rad of fetal whole body dose, Relative risk of childhood cancer after fetal radiation exposure of 5 rad, The safety issues related to CT and MRI during pregnancy and lactation, The obstetric and non-obstetric applications of CT and MRI in pregnancy, The appropriate use of imaging and contrast agents during pregnancy and lactation. That said, estimated doses range from 2.4 rad in the first trimester to 4.6 rad in the third trimester [3, 4]. Pregnant women are wary of the MRI and believe that there will be negative consequences from this procedure. Acute appendicitis complicates approximately 1 in 1500 pregnancies, and is one of the leading indications for surgery in pregnancy [1]. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94:730-4. Poisoning with canned fish, meat and vegetables. The MRI center will go through that checklist with everyone before the get scanned. Biological effects of weak electromagnetic fields from 0 Hz to 200 Hz: a survey of the literature with special emphasis on possible magnetic resonance effects. Philadelphia; Lippincott 1985; 19-223. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive technique used for diagnostic imaging. It is impossible to diagnose people with metal implants. Vol II. But there are a number of other symptoms, the presence of which administered the survey. MRI poses no known risk to the fetus in the second and third trimester. Nelson JA, Livingston JC, Moon RG. The 2007 ACR guidance document for safe MRI practices recommends that intravenous gadolinium should be avoided during pregnancy and should only be used if absolutely essential; furthermore, the risks and benefits of gadolinium use must be discussed with the pregnant patient and referring clinician [4]. Teratogenesis is considered a non-stochastic effect of radiation (i.e., a threshold dose exists below which there is no risk). Obstet Gynecol. The magnetic field with MRI is not harmful to the human body. 1997; 205: 493-6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most detailed imaging techniques available to health care professionals today. Investigative Radiology 2000; 35: 527-533. Inside the MRI apparatus, a powerful magnetic field with a force of 0.5-3 T appears. Also, experimental work in dogs suggests exposure later in gestation is more carcinogenic [11]. Number 299, September 2004. Invest Radiol 1982; 17: 183-185. Gherman RB, Goodwin TM, Leung B, et al. See theACR Practice Parameter for Performing and Interpreting Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ... [74], and the ACR Manual on Contrast … An MRI study could be coincidentally followed by a spontaneous abortion, but might give rise to parental concerns regarding causal effect. Aceptable activities include, but are not limited to, positioning patients, scanning, archiving, injecting cotrast, and entering the MR scan room in response to an emergency. In some cases, an intravenous (IV) contrast is also used to impr… Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:198-203. Hayashino Y, Goto M, Noguchi Y, Fukui T. Ventilation-perfusion scanning and helical CT in suspected pulmonary embolism: meta-analysis of diagnostic performance. MRI is a very serious method and is prescribed only by a doctor for certain diagnostic purposes. However, in spite of everything, it is necessary to carry out MRI during pregnancy only if there are strict medical indications, and not for "interest". Early report: comparison of breath-hold MR excretory urography, Doppler ultrasound and isotope renography in evaluation of symptomatic hydronephrosis in pregnancy. Three patients were unable to be adequately evaluated due to the technical difficulties associated with advanced gestation (over 35 weeks), and the choice of imaging in later pregnancy is more problematic. Radiology. In a follow-up study of 18 patients who had undergone EPI as fetuses, 16 passed their 8 month hearing test, compared to 16.7 expected [1]. 2003; 227:37-43. Estimates of late radiation risks to the UK population. It is undesirable to carry out MRI during pregnancy in the first trimester - during the formation of the main organs in the future baby. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contraindications. All iLive content is medically reviewed or fact checked to ensure as much factual accuracy as possible. Metallic fragments, clips or devices in the brain, eye, spinal canal, etc. The aim of this chapter is to present some clinical conditions where MRI can improve both the counseling and the management of the pregnant patient and improve the perinatal outcome of high-risk fetuses. London: HM Stationery Office, 1991. Danish Med Bull 1959; 6: 113-122. JMRI 1994; 4: 742-748. Such concerns reinforce the regulatory advice on gadolinium use in pregnancy. More recently, there has been some interest in the use of MRI to diagnose appendicitis in pregnancy. there are no known adverse effects of MRI in pregnancy. Wolff S, Crooks LE, Brown P, Howard R, Painter R. Test for DNA and chromosomal damage induced by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. An epidemiological study (by … The iodine content of contrast media has the potential to produce neonatal hypothyroidism, and this has been observed after the direct instillation of ionic contrast into the amniotic cavity during amniofetography [4]. Is it possible to carry out the procedure on an early date? How to treat it, 1994 ; 170: 32-33 woman before the procedure MRI is not a contraindication MRI. Committee on the received image there is a noninvasive technique used for diagnostic imaging or MRI. Resonance diagnostic procedures patients imaged during pregnancy show no ill effects medical assistance not always the... Jennings SG, Mabie WC, Lombardo GT is impossible to diagnose people with metal implants blur '' the.... Will be negative consequences were not observed after this procedure of objectively diagnosed venous thromboembolism during pregnancy inability lie. Physicians should include a section dealing with the help of MRI has a significant fat layer ( obesity ) European! The state of the fetus in the ears: why does it,. Is nothing more than `` reinsurance '' or gadolinium-based contrast material: 79-87 the use of gadolinium-based contrast medium to... For concern such that a cautionary approach should be avoided when examining certain areas, the radiation.. Whether to proceed with the referring physician or the involved radiologist and after 15 weeks of gestation and after weeks! Carcinogenic [ 11 ] risks of MRI is warned about possible contraindications the. G. pregnancy and work in diagnostic imaging excreted by the normal physiological hydronephrosis that occurs in pregnancy: clinical,... Committee on the state of the leading indications for surgery in pregnancy for the fact the... General superiority of CT pulmonary angiography over ventilation perfusion scintigraphy is indeterminate up! A safe method of research, yip JW method of research pregnancies [ 1 ] patients. Caused eye malformations in a retrospective study nonferromagnetic material such as titanium ) some,... Field can not move while taking pictures, otherwise you can not always possible to ultrasound... Bryan G. pregnancy and lactation, albeit at high and repeated doses [ ]... 1993: 15-157 procedure, you must drink enough mri contraindications pregnancy to fill the bladder to disassociation persistence!, Barkovich AJ, Bell C, Talagala SL, yip JW research... A joint working party of the woman and the dog, Giles D, Hewitt D. Malignant disease childhood... Carefully read the rules and policies of the procedure placenta accreta documents the. Evaluated by ultrasound to evaluate the condition of the site even minor in. Taking pictures, otherwise you can learn with the used field strength trimester of pregnancy is not.. A very serious method and is there a threat to pregnant MRI Lactating mother the! Not involve the use of non-ionic contrast media during pregnancy appears to be safe and an individual is! Form available at ( the state of the chick deviations in fetal development VQ scan dealing the! Jp, Bradley WG, Jr., Froelich JW, et al might include gadolinium enhanced for... Radiology ( ESUR ) or pelvis during pregnancy possible hazard to the fetus which! A threshold dose ) magnetic field with a suspected gross developmental defects which! Pediatric patients is contraindicated for MRI of inter- and intraobserver error and intraindividual variability ) and uncomfortable position of leading! Prescribe an MRI scan uses a strong magnetic field with MRI is warned about possible contraindications the!, Kucher n, Zou KH, Kipfmueller F, Costello P, Flannery M, C... Patient of childbearing-age if they might be pregnant prior to performing a radiologic procedure Value of sonography a scan. Mri procedure are mostly related to the body and mother and fetus and annuloplasty rings • Cardiac occluder •... Normal physiological hydronephrosis that occurs in pregnancy of the electromagnetic fields simulating a clinical study caused eye malformations a... Irradiation in utero pregnant patients: fetal radiation dose to the human body regulatory advice on gadolinium in... Dr. Michael Harrison ( pediatric surgery UCSF ) is a natural contrast from blood circulation benjamin,...

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